Deterministic vs Stochastic
Same set of initial values produce same output. As an example of chess game, if we take the movement of pawn we know exactly how it moves on the next move. So the movement can be determined.
Same set of initial values produce different outputs. It poses some inherent randomness. As an example when rolling a dice, we cannot actually determine what the result would be.
Discrete vs Continuous
Discrete is something you would represent with a whole number like 0, 1, 2 or category like male or female.
Continuous is not restricted to defined separate values. Like temperature, it could be vary 26, 26.1, 27.004
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